学术成果
当前位置:首页 〉学术 〉学术成果

网络时代重解“国际主义”之梦

发布时间:11-11-12

    对于亚洲国家,尤其是具有自己独特文化渊源和背景的民族国家来讲,“国际主义”一直是一个“梦”,这个“梦”可能是理想的美好的“梦”,也可能是一个烦人恼人的“梦魇”,也可能是一个可望而不可得的“梦想”。整个20世纪,我们在这样的“梦”境中兴奋着折腾着,带着期望,也带着成就感,但是更带着失落,带着负罪感。进入21世纪,我们似乎有这样的可能:在一种新的以科技网络为手段和交流系统的背景底下,重新检视“国际主义”这个“梦”存在的形态和可能的意义,以及重新定义“国际主义”的必要性。
    网络时代,人们的交流,尤其是跨空间的交流正被逐渐引入到以新科技为交流平台和系统手段的情境之中,这样的一个平台,使用着相同的软件系统,应有着相同的系统语言,运送在相同的空间载体,迅速而便捷的互访似乎使人们的物理空间和心理空间压缩在一块,人们能够几乎在同一时间面对和思考同一个问题,“地球村”的概念似乎已经不是在面对物理空间,心理和文化的空间也正在缩小和消失。
    当科学技术、商业贸易以及交通旅行使我们这个地球变小,使世界文化进入更为宏大而密切的接轨之际,人们似乎觉得跨国跨文化的信息与观念也会成比例地递增,尤其是文化之间的对话和彼此的了解将会增加。一种被称作“国际主义”的文化即将出现。但是,事实和结果并不是像人们想象的一样,其实,这样的文化交流实际上是在两个层面上发生,并形成不同层面的结果。
    一方面,商业文化、科技文化、大众及流行文化确实很有“全球化”或“国际主义化”的趋势,尤其是像流行音乐、市场影视、大众娱乐、广告等,各种类型文化相互渗透,产生了很多商业气息很浓的混血儿,尤其是互联网络,更是通过电子科技的形式迅速普及化和全球化,全球网络以其视听性强,平面而同质同构的特点主动而强制地使商业文化、流行文化为社会所普遍接受。因此,所谓“全球化”或“国际主义”的话语似乎得以成立和流行,并广泛地传播。
    但是另一方面,商业文化、大众文化、电子文化的全球化和国际主义化,并没有带来全球化的智性文化的整合,各种以历史和传统为基础的智性文化,仍然存在很多方面的彼此误读和彼此隔阂,尤其是以民族国家为主体的文化形态,更是在历史的选择和思考,以及现实的战略要求下,寻求着保持其独特性的可能及意义。智性文化包含着一种文化形态的精神及结构,包含个人或民族的智慧和思想,包含通过历史传递方式流传下来的文本文化以及对这种文本文化阅读和表达的方式。
    那么,我们在这种全球性的网络时代,如何解梦“国际主义”,如何对“国际主义”进行重新的定义,如何去面对和应对全球的“国际主义”的趋势,这也许是很有意思也很有现实意义的课题。
    首先,通常所说的“国际主义”是一个流行的“梦”,流行的特点就是其大众性和商业性,我们在这种流行的梦中满足了对“现代”和“全球”的想象,社会也需要这样一个流行而普遍的梦,使我们对时间和空间以及日常生活有丰实的满足感。
    然而,我们对于“国际主义”之梦的虚幻的感觉,使有必要对它予以重新的认识,究竟什么是我们所需要的“国际主义”,尤其是在智性文化的层面上。
    “国际主义”首先应该是指一种主动积极参与的态度,参与到国际间的文化对话之中。这种对话,主要是对国际事务包括国际历史文化事务的积极“表态”,对人类共同面对的问题的积极探讨和解决,对当下的现实积极地提出思考和应对的措施。当然,“对话”必须具备三个主要的前提,一是对话所涉及的话题内容必须是对话双方或多方所共同关注、彼此了解的,这样才有共同对话的基础;二是对话所使用的语言必须是双方或多方所能够理解的,理解是无法建立在强求的基础上的,因此语言必须是开放性的可解读的;第三,对话各方的身份应该是平等或基本平等的,在这样的基础上的对话才可能是平等的。所以,“国际主义”是指向于在可能平等沟通的基础上共同关注问题和关注共同问题。
    但是,共同关注问题和关注共同问题并不是说应该或者就会声音一致,“国际主义”应该被要求和被理解为从不同的智性文化背景和立场上,对共同的问题作出多元的表达。多元的表达具有这样的意义:
    一,多元的表达能够产生智性的互补作用,我们需要从多种不同的角度和不同的利益出发点对世界共同关注的问题提出互补性的意见,表达多层面的见解和解决问题的方法。这同时也包含了言说方式的不同和多元。
    二,不同的智性文化有着不同的精神和智慧的特点,人类需要以彼此倾慕和尊重的情怀和态度来对待不同的文化,在陌生感和距离感中感受到精神和智慧的奇妙和独特之处。文化间的“误读”有时是智慧和趣味的延伸和补充。
    其实,在这种开放的全球性的网络时代,“国际主义”应该被理解为由商业文化、电子文化的同质化、平面化的趋势与智性文化固有的异质性、多面性的本质之间的冲突,抗衡,协调,共构所形成的文化形态。“国际主义”的文化形态将以其多元的精神智慧方式和言说方式对国际间共同的文化问题作出各自表达,同时,尊重和倾听这样种种的表达。
王璜生:广东美术馆馆长
Rediscovering the Dream of Internationalism in an Internet Era
Wang Huangsheng, Chief Curator of Guangdong Museum of Art
        Internationalism is always a dream to Asian countries, especially for those nations who have unique cultural origins and backgrounds. Such a dream, can be an ideal, an annoying nightmare, or even a rainbow hunt. Throughout the 20th century, we have been carrying such a dream that is exciting but torturing, with expectation and a feeling of achievements, which on the other hand, leaves us in lost and in guilt. Entering the 21st century, we seem to have this possibility, that is, to recover and re-identify the dream of 揑nternationalism?with help of a new technologythe Internet and a background of cultural exchange system.
        During Internet times, communication among people, especially transnational ones, are introduced to a platform that is base on new technologies and new systems. This platform has a same software system, a same language, a same carrier, whose interaction is so rapid and convenient that it seems to draw closer the physical and mental spaces among people. People can almost focus and ponder over one same question at the same time. By this means, the concept of 搕he Global Village?doesnt seem to mean a physical space anymore, and the psychological and cultural spaces are also narrowing and disappearing.
        When science, technology, commerce, trade, transportation and travel make the world smaller and push international cultures into a macro and intimate contact, people seem to think that international and inter-cultural information and concepts will increase pro rata, especially the dialogues between different cultures and mutual understandings. A cultural phenomenon called 揑nternationalism?will come forth. However, the fact is not as the same as people imagine. The truth is such a cultural exchange occurs on two different levels, and has two levels of results.
The first level is: commercial, technological and popular cultures are very global and international, particularly cultures like pop music, movies, entertainment, advertisement, which infiltrate into each other and produce a great many hybrids that are highly commercialized, among which the Internet popularizes and globalizes rapidly through electronic science and technology. Global Internet features in a strong audio-visual effect as well as a common shared media, therefore it initiate and compulsively makes commercial and popular cultures widely taken by the society. Thus the so-called 揋lobalization?and 揑nternationalism?come into existence and are wildly spread.
        On the other hand, globalization and internationalism of commercial, popular and electronic cultures do not bring integration to intellectual culture. Various intellectual cultures based on history and tradition still have misunderstandings and barriers. Cultural modalities categorized by nations and countries seek possibility and the real meaning to preserve their uniqueness in response to their historical choices and tactical demands. Intellectual culture represents the spirit and structure of a cultural modality. It also contains individual and national wisdom and thinking; moreover, it embodies a text culture that passed on along with history and the interpretation and expression of such a text culture.
In the global era of Internet technology, how do we interpret 揑nternationalism?and identify it in a new perspective? And how do we face and cope with this global trend of Internationalism? The question may be an interesting and significant issue.
        First of all, when we say that Internationalism is a popular dream, it refers to the popularity and commerciality of the dream itself. We are fulfilled with the imagination of modernization and globalization in such a dream. The society also needs a popular and common dream like that, in order to make us feel satisfied with the enrichment of time and space in our daily life.
        Nevertheless, the mirage that we see in the dream of Internationalism requests us to rediscover: what is the true Internationalism that we need, in particular in perspective of intellectual cultural level?
        Internationalism should refer to an attitude of active participation into international cultural dialogues. Its mainly about to show our stands in aspects of international affairs, including historical and cultural issues; to conduct active exploration and resolution to problems that we are facing, and to ponder over the reality and put forth coping tactics. For sure, there are three necessary conditions for such dialogues to be carried on: first, contents of the dialogues must be something that has mutual concerns and understandings; second, the language used in these dialogues must be a language that can be comprehended by mutual or multiple parties, because comprehension requires an open and readable language; third, all parities who join the dialogues must be treated equalonly when the base is equal can the dialogues be equal. Therefore, Internationalism should be interpreted as a focus on the same issue and an issue that received same focus, which are both built on the same base of equal communication.
However, a focus on the same issue or an issue that received same focus does not necessarily mean same voices. Internationalism should be requested or understood as diversified expressions based on different intellectual cultural backgrounds but towards a same issue. Diversified expressions have the following connotations:
        Firstly, diversified expressions can offer complementation. That means we need to view the same issue that concerns the whole world in different perspectives and on different interests so as to bring out complementary suggestions and solutions. It also includes the diversity of different ways to show opinions.
        Secondly, different intellectual cultures have various spirits and wisdom. Mankind need to treat different cultures with respect and love, to feel the amazement and uniqueness of their spirits and wisdom in the eye of a stranger. Sometimes, cultural 搈isunderstanding?is the extent and supplement of spirits and wisdom.
        Finally, in the open Internet Era, Internationalism should be understood as a cultural modality that is compose of several elementsthe trend of commercial and electronic culture to obtain homogeneity and complanation, and the conflict and harmony between the intrinsic natures of intellectual culture, that is, its heterogeneity and versatility. The cultural modality of Internationalism will give different expressions on the same international cultural issues in diversified ways, and will respect and listen to other voices as well.

Feb. 25, 2005 at the Guangdong Museum of Art